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Swellings: It softens the swellings with a tendency towards hardening and prevents them from becoming more hard hypertension jokes 0.1 mg clonidine mastercard. Clarke Nature: Doucus is a seed of wild carrot which has been dealt with in details under the chapter on wild carrot hypertension 55 years cheap 0.1mg clonidine mastercard. Now we will describe some properties of its bark and the rest would be dealt with under the letter "Ghain" where ghiir (bay tree) is discussed blood pressure quotes buy generic clonidine 0.1mg on line. Joints: It is good to blood pressure chart jnc 0.1 mg clonidine with amex be used in the atony of nerves, paralysis and facial paralysis. Nettle oil and carthum seed oil are hot in the first and moist in the second degree. Oils of yellow gilli flower and persian lilac are hot and moist in the third degree. Oils of bitter almond, vine twigs, rose, mandrake and quince are similar to each other in cooling and astringent properties. We do not propose to deal with the method of preparation of these oils here, this we shall do in the pharmacopoeial part. Moreover it is not within the scope of present discussion to describe the compound oils, like the costus oil and boxmyrtle oil and also their procurement and uses. Oil of blue lily is softening and strengthening for the organs and it is maturative and sedative for painful conditions. The oil of common rue is a potent dissolvent of flatulence and it resembles the oil of bay tree. Costus arabicus oil is useful in various epidemic outbreaks (by purifying the atmosphere), turning tbe polluted and filthy air and stagnant water into fragrant and pleasant ones. The almond oil, specially that from bitter almonds, if used with honey, root of blue lily and melted wax, is beneficial in facial wrinkles, freckles and other ugly marks. Fenugreek oil is very good for improving the complexion specially around the eye orbits. Chamomile and blue lily oils are beneficial in fatigue while dill oil is good for the persons affected with cold. Head: Almond oil is useful in throbbing headache tinnitus and "whistling" sensation in the ear. The rose oil is good to be used in encephalitis and in the initial stages of swellings. Because of its moderate temperament, Galen stated that the rose oil warms up the extremely cold body and cools down the hot body. In my opinion it is more likely to normalise the hot bodies than warming up the cold ones. Castor oil is beneficial in cases of ulcers and swellings of the head and also in otalgia. Alimentary Organs: Almond oil is a good remedy for splenitis but it is rather heavy for the stomach. Rose-oil relaxes the bowels and is helpful when there is some (humoral) matter which needs to be evacuated. Sweet almond oil is good to be used in nephralgia, dysuria, cystolith, cystalgia, uteralgia, uteritis and hysteria. Blue lily oil facilitates delivery and relieves uteralgia both ways, when taken orally or as an enema. Fenugreek oil is useful in cases of sclerosis of uterus, uterine abscess and mogitocia. Caster oil is useful in anal swellings uterine cramps and prolapse of the uterus and also in mogitocia. Fevers: Chamomile oil is far better than rose-oil to be used in prolonged fevers while dill oil is good for shivering fevers. Carthum seeds oil is the substitute of nettle oil but it is weaker than the latter.

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A study of a Lebanese population blood pressure chart seniors best 0.1 mg clonidine, which focused on nondiabetic males over fifty years old arrhythmia on ekg cheap 0.1mg clonidine with amex, also found elevated leptin levels associated with metabolic syndrome pulse pressure under 30 purchase clonidine 0.1 mg overnight delivery. In this study by Yun et al arrhythmia pvc discount clonidine 0.1 mg line, serum leptin levels increased as the components of metabolic syndrome increased, regardless of obese and nonobese weight status, implying that reduction of leptin levels may be protective, regardless of weight loss [21]. Contrary to this, Martins et al, found a direct positive association between leptin and obesity, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, but was only weakly related to other components of metabolic syndrome [22]. Adiponectin has many functions, including anti-atherogenesis, insulin sensitization, lipid oxidation enhancement, and vasodilatation. Therefore, it stands to reason that it is related to metabolic syndrome given its impact on all of these components. It has insulin-sensitizing activities, with high levels exerting a protective effect against type 2 diabetes in diabetes-prone individuals [7] and low levels being an independent risk factor for future development of type 2 diabetes [26]. Levels of adiponectin are low in subjects with essential hypertension and in the obese, but adiponectin levels can be increased with weight loss [7, 27]. As the mean number of metabolic syndrome components increased, plasma adiponectin levels decreased. They found that men had lower levels of adiponectin than women, which is interesting since it may be part of the reason why women have a lower risk of coronary artery disease [7]. Overall, the literature shows that adiponectin is inversely related to metabolic syndrome and the number of components present. Low ghrelin levels have been associated with the components of metabolic syndrome including obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension [41-43]. However the association between low ghrelin and metabolic syndrome is likely primarily explained by the relationship to obesity as obese patients with metabolic syndrome have lower ghrelin levels than nonobese counterparts [44]. Furthermore, amongst obese patients, ghrelin levels are lower in insulin resistant patients compared to insulin sensitive obese patients [45]. Plasma ghrelin levels are also decreased in the healthy offspring of type 2 diabetes patients suggesting a genetic component to ghrelin regulation [37]. Ghrelin is implicated in endothelial function by preventing proatherogenic changes and improving vasodilation [37]. Tesauro et al assessed vascular function by measuring forearm blood flow in metabolic syndrome and control patients. The association was weaker in females since they had more elevated adiponectin levels, which is thought to be protective against metabolic syndrome [32]. Others postulate that the ratio difference between males and females is due to the difference in glucose and lipid metabolism [31]. One limiting factor with using just adiponectin or leptin is that the difference between adiponectin and leptin tends to be small in the fasting vs postprandial state. Research into the vasoprotective and lipolytic properties of ghrelin is emerging and presents two pathways by which ghrelin can exert a protective effect against metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is associated with lower levels of ghrelin, and progressively lower ghrelin levels are associated with increasing metabolic syndrome severity. Ghrelin levels decrease with increasing number of metabolic syndrome derangements [37-40]. For example, high levels are positively correlated with thrombotic vascular conditions such as myocardial infarction and deep vein thrombosis. This is thought to be related to the inhibition of fibrin degradation and vessel wall remodeling. It is thought to be a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease and some suggest it can be used as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular risk [48, 49]. It has also been implicated in cancer angiogenesis and metastasis, wound healing, bacterial infections, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic kidney disease [50]. Like several of the other metabolic syndrome biomarkers, differences between the sexes have been noted, with the relationship being stronger in males than females [55]. Though its role in pathological diseases is not completely understood, uric acid likely causes systemic inflammation [58].

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Research on food and agricultural systems needs to blood pressure medication drug test purchase 0.1mg clonidine otc become more multidisciplinary blood pressure 7744 buy clonidine 0.1 mg cheap, more participatory and more focused on interactions between different components of biodiversity for food and agriculture pulse pressure variation critical care purchase clonidine 0.1 mg free shipping. Cooperation across disciplines blood pressure normal range for adults order clonidine 0.1mg online, and greater involvement of producers and other stakeholders in research projects, can help to overcome these knowledge gaps. Improving the management of biodiversity for food and agriculture and enhancing its contributions to ecosystem services call for better multistakeholder, cross-sectoral and international cooperation. Frameworks for cooperation at national, regional and international levels in the management of genetic resources are relatively well developed in the individual sectors of food and agriculture. Cross-sectoral cooperation and multistakeholder collaborative activities specifically targeting associated biodiversity and wild foods are less widespread and need to be expanded and strengthened. Establishing effective policy and outreach measures will be needed to support the uptake of management practices that sustainably use biodiversity to promote food and livelihood security and resilience. Consideration also needs to be given to how the international community can more effectively promote synergies in the management of all components of biodiversity, across these sectors and others, in the interests of a more sustainable food and agriculture. In many parts of the world, biodiverse agricultural landscapes in which cultivated land is interspersed with uncultivated areas such as woodlands, pastures and wetlands have been, or are being, replaced by large areas of monoculture, farmed using large quantities of external inputs such as pesticides, mineral fertilizers and fossil fuels. Although high levels of crop and livestock production have been achieved, this has often come at the cost of major disruptions to the integrity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, of declining opportunities for mutually beneficial interactions between sectors, and of the loss of components of biodiversity that provide services such as pollination, pest control and nutrient cycling. Changes in fishing activities by international fleets are exerting particular pressure in the waters of some developing countries, in part because of the use of "flags of convenience" (Ferrel, 2005; Miller and Sumaila, 2014). Over recent decades, growing global demand for fish has increasingly been met by aquaculture. Although fish farming offers opportunities to diversify production through polyculture or through integration with other production activities, it is also becoming increasingly intensified. Some systems use non-native species, which creates the risk of escapes that may harm local biodiversity (Lee and Gordon, 2006; McGinnity et al. Although rates of loss have decreased (and gone into moderate reverse in some regions), global forest area continues to decline, with the early part of this century seeing net losses in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia (ibid. The main cause of deforestation in these regions is conversion to agriculture, with illegal logging, fires and fuelwood extraction also contributing (ibid. The food and agriculture sector is a major contributor to greenhouse-gas emissions. Loss of biodiversity in turn threatens the capacity of ecosystems used for food and agriculture to sequester carbon and reduces the options available for modifying production systems in the interests of climate change mitigation and adaptation (Chen et al. It identifies and assesses the contributions that biodiversity makes to the supply of ecosystem services relevant to food and agriculture, to the resilience of production systems, to efforts to intensify production sustainably, to the livelihoods of farmers, livestock keepers, fishers, fish farmers and forest dwellers, and to food security and nutrition. It documents what is known about the status and trends of these components of biodiversity, and identifies and assesses the impacts of major drivers of change affecting them. It also documents the state of adoption of management practices and strategies in food and agriculture that use biodiversity or contribute to its conservation, the state of programmes addressing the characterization and conservation of components of biodiversity relevant to food and agriculture, and the state of policy and institutional frameworks for the management of these resources. It identifies key gaps and needs in terms of knowledge, capacity and resources and pinpoints priority actions that can help to address them. Put simply, biodiversity is the variability that exists among living organisms (both within and between species) and the ecosystems of which they are part. It includes not only the domesticated crops and livestock raised by farmers and livestock keepers, the trees planted and harvested by forest dwellers and the aquatic species harvested or raised by fishers and aquaculture practitioners, but also the myriad other species of plants, animals and micro-organisms that underpin production, whether by creating and maintaining healthy soils, pollinating plants, purifying water, providing protection against extreme weather events, enabling ruminant animals to digest fibrous plant materials or delivering any of a range of other vital services. It also includes wild species (beyond the already-noted harvested aquatic species and forest trees) that are harvested for food and for other purposes. Finally, it includes micro-organisms used in food processing and in various agro-industrial processes. Crops and livestock and farmed or wild-harvested trees and aquatic species all clearly contribute directly to food security and livelihoods. In many cases, they also provide other services that support food and agricultural production. For example, a tree or a herbaceous crop plant may help to protect the soil against erosion or to create a favourable microclimate for other components of the production system, a farmed animal may remove weeds or provide manure to fertilize crops, or a filter-feeding mollusc raised in aquaculture may contribute to water purification. Many of the other species that live in and around production systems also make relatively direct and clearly identifiable contributions to food and agriculture, for example the role of bees in pollination or ladybird beetles in removing aphid pests from crop plants.

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Not coincidentally arteria poplitea discount clonidine 0.1 mg overnight delivery, the new ruler preferred the Latin of the Frankish priests to blood pressure chart bpm generic 0.1mg clonidine with mastercard the Slavonic liturgy and did nothing to arteria hepatica propria clonidine 0.1 mg with mastercard prevent papal legates from expelling the Moravian disciples of Saint Methodius hypertension with stage v renal disease purchase 0.1 mg clonidine with amex, who came under the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Constantinople. Under Svatopulk (870­894), Great Moravia encompassed parts of eastern Germany with its large Slav population-in Cottbus in Brandenburg many still speak the Slavic Sorb language-and Slav western Poland, as well as Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia, all lands where the impressive and melodious Slavonic liturgy of the Orthodox Church would have naturally prevailed, unless forcibly excluded, as it was. The popes of the time, and especially Formosus (891­896), were exceptionally experienced in waging ecclesiastical war against the patriarchate of Constantinople. Their ruthless energy often overcame their enormous handicap: their lack of a protective emperor of their own. It was a persistent disparity that added an element of bitter resentment to the competition between the churchmen of Rome and Constantinople, at a time when there was as yet no doctrinal difference to justify all the animosity. Pope Formosus had himself served as legate to Boris I, or Bogoris ruler of Bulgaria (852­889), who in 867 petitioned Pope Nicholas to appoint Formosus archbishop of Bulgaria, a very deliberate attempt to transfer the emerging Bulgarian Church from the jurisdiction of the patriarch to that of the pope. Four years earlier in 863, Boris had become the first Bulghar ruler to convert to Christianity. Just as Ratislav had wanted his Christianity to come from safely distant Constantinople instead of the excessively powerful Francia of Louis the German right at his borders, so Boris had invited that same Louis to send him missionaries to effect his conversion, instead of inviting clergymen from nearby but overbearing Constantinople. The Geography of Power 167 Both Ratislav and Boris were trying to avoid adding religious subordination to their strategic inferiority. Yet he was undoubtedly committed to Christianity: when Bulghars still attached to the old religion revolted against the new faith in 865, Boris responded with mass violence, executing fifty-two tribal chiefs (boyars) together with their families. Again, having abdicated in 889 to retire to a monastery as a monk- surely a proof of his religious sincerity-in 893 Boris came out of his cell to rally an army to depose and blind his own son, Vladimir, and give the throne to his third son, Symeon I; according to the almost contemporary chronicle of the admittedly distant Regino of Prum, Boris overthrew and mutilated Vladimir because he had wanted to restore the old religion. It would be Symeon who reconciled religion with independence by gaining Byzantine recognition for the autocephaly of the Bulgarian church, whose patriarch he could appoint, just as the Byzantine emperor appointed the patriarch of Constantinople. In the Book of Ceremonies, India is provided for: To the hyperechon kyrios [most senior lord] of India. With their common enemy between them, the Byzantines and the Guptas could have concerted their military operations advantageously. The mountains of the Hindu Kush, the convergence of the westernmost Pamirs and Himalayas, were an impossible obstacle to overland journeys to India by way of Central Asia, but ships habitually sailed from Byzantine Egypt to Indian ports, which meant incidentally that much was known about the country. As compared to the three-year journey of Zemarchos to the Tьrk qagan in the Altai mountains and back, the passages of envoys to and from India by sea would have been less perilous, more comfortable, and altogether faster. Given the geographic barriers, there was no possibility of combining forces for unified action-even with transformed logistics, during the Second World War Germany and Japan could deploy no greater joint forces than the brief encounters of their submarines at Penang, Malaya. Coordinated offensives would have been possible, but there is no sign of any such initiative. By the time the Book of Ceremonies was redacted, the nearest thing to a "senior lord of India" was the ruler of the Chavda dynasty centered in Gujrat, the last of whom, Samantsinh Chavda, was overthrown in 942 by his adopted son Mulraj, founder of the eponymous dynasty. Of China the Byzantines knew a little from the Turkic powers in between under the name Taugast (= Turkic Tabghach) for the China of the Wei dynasty. But mostly China was known as the original source of silk-indispensable for the vestments of court officials and high prelates. Silk was also of strategic importance, because of the frequent fights over the control of the way stations of the silk route across Central Asia. We have seen how the Sogdians of the silk-road cities on either side of Samarkand had adapted to the arrival of the Tьrk qaganate by mediating its alliance with Byzantium. Until the time of Justinian, moreover, the Byzantines were forced to import their silk by way of the Sasanian Persian empire, increasing its gold revenues. Prokopios of Caesarea relates the marginally credible tale of how "certain monks, coming from India" appeared before emperor Justinian (527­565), explained that silk was made in Serinda, north of India, by worms (moths, actually) fed on mulberry leaves, and offered to smuggle in their eggs-their motive being to deny the Sasanians the rich profits of the silk trade. That could not interest the Byzantines; their apparent proclivity for pointless formalities was usually rather purposeful. Another communication also had no strategic content, but interests for its own sake: in 1372 the first Ming emperor, Hongwu, sent an announcement of his accession to the emperor of Byzantium. But when the nation began to arouse itself, We, as a simple peasant of Huai-yu, conceived the patriotic idea to save the people. We have [now] established peace in the Empire, and restored the old boundaries of [China]. Although We are not equal in wisdom to our ancient rulers whose virtue was recognized all over the universe, We cannot but let the world know Our intention to maintain peace within the four seas. W chapter 8 Bulghars and Bulgarians Byzantine dealings with the Caucasian states were certainly complicated but entailed no existential threat to the empire.

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