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Translated abstracts are available for 8 of the 13 research articles and are presented at this back of this supplement. Open access also means that the authors or copyright owners grant any third party the right to use, reproduce and disseminate the research article. BioMed Central is committed to maintaining open access for all research articles that it publishes, both retrospectively and prospectively, in all eventualities, including any future changes in ownership. For more information please refer to the BioMed Central Open Access Charter and permanancy of articles webpages accessible from. Accordingly, the publishers, the editor and editorial board, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement. However, the presence of vaccines does not easily translate into every child being vaccinated, and this is what the studies in this journal supplement reveal. From South Asia to West Africa, the evidence presented here reveals what we are calling the fallacy of coverage, going beyond uncovering the real vaccination rates to providing evidence on the reasons for the lack of effective coverage. The evidence for the fallacy of coverage is part of an operational research program entitled the Canadian International Immunization Initiative Phase 2 (Clll2). Through a competitive peer review process, six research grants were awarded to increase access to and enhance immunization services. This journal supplement provides a forum for the presentation of the results of five of the six studies. The story of the fallacy of coverage is made up of five theme areas of evidence - timeliness of immunization, social and gender inequities, vaccine efficacy, understanding demand side issues to tailor interventions, and national data sets masking actual district level coverage rates - that reveal the discrepancies in immunization coverage rates and the reasons behind these discrepancies. As part of the story, and to turn around the fallacy of coverage, the studies also provide proof of effective and locally relevant solutions. The results from the operational research grants of the Clll2 offer some answers on how to reach this goal by demonstrating how locally generated evidence can inform immunization strategies to ensure that children who need to get vaccinated will get vaccinated, and vaccinated on time. Region South Asia South-East Asia Latin America & Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa Diseases Measles, Tetanus, Pertussis Pertussis, Measles, Hep B Pertussis, Tetanus, Hep B Measles, Pertussis, Tetanus Immunization can and does save lives. With existmg vaccines, it is estimated that between two and three million deaths from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles are prevented annually [l]. Examination of the top three vaccine-preventable diseases in all regions of the world reveals the importance of focusing efforts on increasing coverage of existing vaccines (See Table 1). As such, from South Asia to West Africa the evidence presented here reveals what we are calling the fallacy of coverage.

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Additionally diabetes prevention first nations order 5 mg glyburide with amex, as art educators are essential workers diabetes symptoms toddler order 2.5mg glyburide amex, I encourage the continued and improved funding for these areas of education diabetic healthy foods purchase 2.5 mg glyburide otc. Again diabetes mellitus is characterized by buy glyburide 2.5 mg on line, I have been honored to accept the award for the National Milken Educators of Hawai`i in our complex area this year and hope that I can continue to bring this promise of the teaching excellence in the arts for every year moving forward. Sincerely, Seth Weddle this is a staff email account managed by Hawaii Department Of Education School District. As every student enters the high school year they are required to take two years of an art class in order to graduate now this is a big concern because to some people it is hard having to all of a sudden switch to those types of classes being pushed to after school. Say someone is taking a sports club while also having to take an arts club this would get in the way because not only does the child have to focus on handling two things at once such events say games, practice, rehearsals, etc could take up a lot of their time leaving them barley any to do what they need (School work, Chores, Job, etc. Linda Bachrach, Brittni Paiva, Mark Kushimi, those are only a few out of the many painters, photographers, musicians that have made a big name for themselves in the community of arts by their craftsmanship and works around the world. So in conclusion for the arts in Hawaii to be taken away when it already has such a big economic impact onto society as such would not only cause the problem for almost everything as we know today to change greatly it would also cause a major downfall for students. Mahalo Nui Loa, Kaleilani Aken Mckeague Sent from Mail for Windows 10 ******************************************************************************** this email was scanned by the Cisco IronPort Email Security System contracted by the Hawaii Dept of Education. Thank you so much considering my testimony, Karen Cheung Sent from my iPhone ******************************************************************************** this email was scanned by the Cisco IronPort Email Security System contracted by the Hawaii Dept of Education. During the 2019-2020 school year I was a freshman who knew little to nothing about the arts until I decided to take a beginning acting class. Before that class I was introverted and did not really acknowledge or appreciate the amount of work and effort that goes into the arts. Through that class I was able to experience a new found joy for performing as I gradually became less and less introverted. I also registered to be put into both the intermediate acting and musical theatre classes. If I had not taken that beginning acting class I may have never been able to realise how much I love and adore performing arts. If you were to take away the arts programs in our schools and relegate them to after school you would not only be taking away my favorite classes, but the favorite classes of so many people who I know go to school only to attend their arts classes. If you were to take away the arts programs in schools you would also prevent anyone else from discovering their love for the arts. You could be preventing a young girl from discovering that she loves to act or a young boy from discovering his love for dancing. For so many people the arts programs in their schools have opened their eyes to endless possibilities for themselves. It gives them the hope of knowing that there are other things than the stereotypical jobs everyone strives for. I hope that you see this testimony and realise that the arts programs in our schools are important and deserve a spot in our school curriculum. Sincerely, Vanessa Gould this system is owned and operated by the Department of Education. I would like to submit official testimony to let you know that my entire family and I greatly oppose this idea. Mahalo, Jacqui Mossman Sent from my iPhone ******************************************************************************** this email was scanned by the Cisco IronPort Email Security System contracted by the Hawaii Dept of Education. Having it in the curriculum allows students to be able to flourish and study their particular subject that they will make their career. This is what they will be studying in college so they need this background to succeed. I have been to many other states being in the military and they have not provided arts like Kapolei High has been able to provide for my child. Jess Rusack Lindholm ******************************************************************************** this email was scanned by the Cisco IronPort Email Security System contracted by the Hawaii Dept of Education. Audit, or General Business Meeting (full Board)); Good day, I am a recent high school graduate from Kapolei High school, with frequent participation in the theatre class and community program. I was recently informed by my Fine Arts teacher that there is intent to shut down the Arts classes. I would like to oppose this declaration, for I believe classes of the Arts belong in the school curriculum.

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It was not until the 1600s when the use of ipecacuanha for induction of emesis was recommended by William Piso (Reid diabetes definition world health organization order 2.5 mg glyburide with amex, 1970) diabetes journal app generic glyburide 2.5mg online. The use of oral charcoal diabetes mellitus type 2 conclusion buy glyburide 5mg cheap, now a mainstay in the treatment of many human poisonings diabetes mellitus zuckerwerte order glyburide 5mg amex, can be dated to early Greek and Roman civilizations when wood charcoal was used for the treatment of maladies such as anthrax and epilepsy (Cooney, 1995). The antidotal properties of charcoal were demonstrated in the 1800s by the French with dramatic demonstrations of a reduction in lethality when charcoal was ingested with potentially lethal dosages of arsenic trioxide by Bertrand and strychnine by Touery (Holt and Holz, 1963). One of the earliest reported human studies examining the efficacy of charcoal in poisoning was in 1948 by the American physician Rand (Holt and Holz, 1963). The use of superheated steam to treat the charcoal to enhance its absorption capacity was reported by Ostrejko, a Russian scientist in 1900 (Greensher et al. By the 1960s, the use of activated charcoal was routinely recommended for the treatment of patients poisoned with substances thought to be adsorbed to charcoal. Introduction of the Poison Control Center Advances in the field of clinical toxicology have paralleled the evolution of poison control centers. One of the earliest local efforts to systematically collect, analyze and distribute to physicians, clinical information about poisoning was led by Jay Arena, a Duke University pediatrician. In 1939 he published a case series detailing the clinical outcome of 50 cases of lye poisoning (Martin and Arena, 1939). Interest in clinical information regarding the treatment of poisoned patients and resultant patient outcomes was also growing in Europe during approximately the same time. During the 1940s, several European communities developed hospital-based treatment facilities for poisoning (Manoguerra and Temple, 1984). This local, poison information effort continued for several years as further realization of the growing importance of the problem of poisoning occurred. A study by the American Academy of Pediatrics completed in 1952 reported that more than half of childhood accidents involved unintentional poisoning in the United States. Possibly in response to this study, Edward Press and Louis Gdalman started the first United States poison control center in Chicago, Illinois. Gdalman had collected toxicological information on more than 9,000 commercial and noncommercial products throughout the 1940s and early 1950s. Their Chicago poison center provided telephone advice to health 1257 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. These centers became valuable resources for information about product ingredients, potential toxicity, and recommendations for the treatment of poisoned patients. Poison control centers proliferated over the next two decades and peaked at 661 centers in 1978 (Scherz and Robertson, 1978). Most of these centers served small areas; each state had a least one poison center; several states had more than 20 poison centers active at the same time; and there was little standardization throughout the specialty. Staffing of a poison control center usually consists of a medical director (medical toxicologist), administrator or managing director, specialists in poison information, and educators for poison prevention programs. The medical toxicologist, managing director, and specialists in poison information are health care professionals who are credentialed by their respective boards. The American Board of Medical Subspecialties offers a subspecialty certificate in medical toxicology to physicians who successfully complete the certifying examination. The public health services provided by poison control centers have been well documented. These services include direct information to patients with recommendations for needed treatment, critical diagnostic and treatment information for health care professionals, education for health care personnel and poison prevention activities through public education. An often cited example of the economic benefit from access to a poison control center comes from a one year forced closure of the Louisiana State Poison Center. It was estimated that the increased costs to the state for emergency medical services was $1. Studies have shown that for each dollar spent to operate a poison control center a saving of approximately $3­6. Recently, the Institute of Medicine commissioned an in-depth study of poison prevention and control services in the United States. Most clinical toxicologists agree that a methodically executed, stepwise approach to the treatment of the poisoned patient is recommended for optimal care (Goldfrank, 2006; Ellenhorn, 1997).

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There can be an interval of up to diabetes insipidus research paper cheap glyburide 5 mg on-line 5 years between physical examinations required for school (and physical education) if a student does not participate in sport diabetes medicine other than metformin order glyburide 5mg overnight delivery. I am aware of changes to diabetes insipidus sodium discount glyburide 2.5mg visa my health since I was cleared to treatment diabetes cats glyburide 5mg overnight delivery participate in school physical education or in school sports. I experience excessive or unexplained shortness of breath/fatigue associated with exercise. Each of these questions must be answered in the negative for the child to participate in the study without medical screening. Note that these questions must be answered by the child with verification by the parent or guardian. Prior to testing and/or training children it is recommended that researchers who are unaccustomed to working with children in physical activity settings read (a) "Differences between Children and Adults for Exercise Testing and Prescription" by H. Ability to Be Discerning Information must be conveyed to children at a level they can understand if they are to assent to participate. Consider using images, video, or taking extra time describing the procedures to assist the child in his or her understanding of the research expectations. The value of rewards and inter-subject competitiveness differs between children and adults. Children may be intimidated by adults so they may not feel able to withdraw or stop participation when appropriate. Consider the courage it might take for a young child to stop participation while hooked up to the metabolic cart with white-coated, adult strangers verbally encouraging him/her to work harder. Environment A child may respond differently in a new environment which might include (a) the physical space (classroom, playground, sports field, lab); (b) social structure (with peers, alone, or in a competitive environment); and (c) authority figure (teacher, parent, researcher). Intensity Consider whether the intensity is initiated by the child (free running or cycling) or externally (on a treadmill). This test battery does include some test items where children perform to volitional fatigue. Healthy children can perform 1- repetition maximum strength tests if they are properly trained and monitored (Faigenbaum, Milliken, & Westcott, 2003). Hypo-hydrated children are at risk for heatstroke and other heat related illnesses. Suggest fluid replacement be observed every 15 to 20 minutes during prolonged bouts of exercise. Children who are obese, hypo-hydrated, wear protective clothing, are malnourished, anorexic, and/or have cystic fibrosis, type I diabetes, a fever, gastroenteritis, or mental retardation are all at additional risk for heat- related illness. Pre-participation cardiovascular screening of young competitive athletes: Policy guidance. Maximal strength testing in healthy children, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17, 162-166. Recommendations and considerations related to pre-participation screening for cardiovascular abnormalities in competitive athletes: 2007 update: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Topics and details are for researcher consideration and may or may not be pertinent to any specific protocol. I understand that I can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty and also that the researcher has the right to terminate or restrict my participation at any time. I may request at the time of withdrawal that all my data be excluded from the research. Responsibility of Subject It is my responsibility to notify the researcher if I experience dizziness, nausea, lightheadedness, unusual pain, or any response that I find unusual or unexpected during or after exercise. I will follow (or will have followed) the guidelines given me for pretesting preparation. Sub-maximal or Maximal Aerobic Exercise or Testing With any exercise, there is the possibility that abnormal responses could occur. These include unexpected changes in blood pressure, irregular heart rate, fainting, shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle cramps, muscle soreness or joint injury, and in rare cases, a cardiac event. Risks will be minimized by researchers evaluating a pre-exercise health screening, implementing a standardized exercise protocol (warm-up and cool down), and having an emergency plan in place to follow if needed. Muscular Strength / Endurance / Power With any exercise, there is the possibility for abnormal responses to occur.

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Each nephron collects a small amount of fluid and waste from a small group of capillaries diabetic diet 1600 calories generic 2.5mg glyburide visa. The fluid within nephrons is carried out into a larger tube in the kidney called a ureter which you can see in Figure 19 type 1 diabetes definition wikipedia glyburide 5 mg. Urea diabetes mellitus case study discount 5 mg glyburide amex, together with water and other wastes diabetes mellitus type 2 genes glyburide 5mg generic, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and the kidney. The blood pressure within the capillaries causes water, salts, sugars, and urea to leave the capillaries and move into the nephron. The water and salts move along through the tube-shaped nephron to a lower part of the nephron. The urine is collected in the ureters and is moved to the urinary bladder, where it is stored. The pituitary gland is about the size of a pea and is found below the brain, as shown in Figure 19. The pituitary gland releases hormones which help the kidneys to filter water from the blood. If the kidneys absorb a lot of water from the blood, what will the urine look like? When a person drinks a lot of water, then there will be a lot of water in the blood. Kidney Stones In some cases, certain mineral wastes can form kidney stones, like the one shown inFigure 19. Kidney failure Kidney failure happens when the kidneys cannot remove wastes from the blood. If the kidneys are unable to filter wastes from the blood, the wastes build up in the body. Lesson Summary · the excretory system controls the chemical make-up of liquids found in the body. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. A combination of experiments, readings, models, debates, role plays, and projects will help you uncover the nature of science and the relevance of science to your interests. You will find that important scientific ideas come up again and again in different activities throughout the book. In particular, you will improve your decision-making skills by using evidence to weigh outcomes and to decide what you think should be done about the scientific issues facing our society. In particular, the activities in this book were tested by hundreds of students and their teachers, and then modified on the basis of their feedback. Kelly, Emeritus Professor of Education and Senior Visiting Fellow, School of Education, University of Southampton, Southampton, England (Complete course) Eric Meikle, National Center for Science Education, Oakland, California (Evolution) Deborah Penry, Assistant Professor, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California (Complete course) Arthur L. These teachers and their students contributed significantly to improving the first edition of the course. This second edition is based on what we have learned from teachers and students in those classrooms. In this unit, you will learn some of the scientific principles and approaches used to study people. Lesson Title vestiga t W e all solve problems every day-from little problems like what to wear to school, to bigger problems like whether to get a job or go to college. He was sailing along on a boat (your plastic cup) when a strong wind blew it upside-down. Unfortunately for Fred, his life preserver (your candy life preserver) is still trapped under the boat. Work with your partner to record in your science notebook exactly what you did to save Fred. A-7 2 24 vi ew and the Pellagra Story Lesson Title re lthough scientists use many methods to solve problems, scientists in the same field frequently use similar approaches. How can you collect eviPoor families of the South were more likely to develop pellagra.

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