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Many of the incidents involved "contempt of cop medicinenetcom order synthroid 125mcg on-line," where beatings occurred because suspects did not obey police commands medications in spanish order 100mcg synthroid visa, or did not obey them rapidly enough 911 treatment center order 125mcg synthroid overnight delivery, or because a suspect insulted the officer in the course of an arrest symptoms irritable bowel syndrome 50mcg synthroid fast delivery. Another common scenario for excessive force was the context of the Rodney King beating: "street justice" imposed after a high speed chase or other form of police pursuit. The most extreme form of excessive force, of course, are police shootings, and there is substantial evidence of numerous unjustified police shootings, often resulting in death or serious injury to the 15 suspects. In 87% of these shootings the victims were African-American, Latino, Asian or Pacific Islander. In only four cases did the suspect have a weapon of any kind and these were a knife, a push broom brush, a sauce pan and a metal pipe. The investigations found that in each department there were dozens of "problem" officers with numerous complaints of misconduct who had not been trained, supervised or disciplined in a 16 way that would restrain their abusive conduct. Moreover, the "code of silence" in both departments made it very difficult to hold disciplinary charges or criminal charges against officers for misconduct. The widespread refusal of officers to testify against other officers accused of misconduct makes it very difficult to make officers accountable to constitutional 17 commands. Moreover, the "code of silence" is enforced by threats of retaliation 18 against officers who complain or testify about the misconduct of other officers. The result is that police officers too often act with impunity toward the people they come into contact with, knowing that there is little chance that they will be sanctioned effectively for the use of excessive force. The forms of retaliation include the filing of trumped up charges against officers who break the "code of silence" or the failure to get back-up assistance from fellow officers in the course of duty. Of course, the problem of police abuse is not limited to minority communities or to urban American. The focus of this chapter is on police abuse in the inner city because this appears to be the most prevalent form of abuse at this time. This is attributable to the continuing effects of racism in American society and also to the fact that minority communities in the inner city are the forums in which the "wars" against drugs, crime and gangs are waged. The racial dimensions of police abuse in America extend beyond the issue of excessive force. Race is the key factor leading to police suspicion, stops and searches in a significant percentage of police encounters with members of minority communities. The real reason was that he was a young African-American male driving a late model car - the prime target of the "war on drugs. Even the most prominent members of the African-American community are presumptively suspected of being potential or actual criminals in urban American. The majority of young minority males are the constant targets of police attention and often this attention comes in the form of harassment or illegal stops and searches. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals sent the case back down for reconsideration of the size of the award but the City of Los Angeles recently agreed to settle the case. This is not to suggest that all or even a majority of police-community interactions amount to harassment or improper conduct. The challenges facing modern law enforcement agencies in urban America are daunting to say the least. In addition, raciallydiscriminatory police abuse violates the anti-discrimination norms of the Covenant. This Reconstruction-era civil rights statute allows for civil rights lawsuits for violations of the Constitution and statutes of the United States and it has been the 24 main weapon against police abuse in U. These remedies are generally not as generous to civil rights plaintiffs as section 1983. These limitations are discussed in more detail in Feds, Lies and Videotape, at 15021514. In addition, individual police officers have a qualified good faith immunity from section 1983 liability unless it can be shown that their conduct 27 violated "clearly established" constitutional norms. This is in conflict with the obligations of Article 2(3) that impose a requirement that violations of the Covenant be remedied. The effectiveness of section 1983 is furthered undermined by the sharp limits on the use of civil rights actions to restrain future constitutional violations, 28 especially in the area of police abuse. The use of chokeholds was extremely controversial in large part because more than a dozen people died as a result of the use of chokeholds, most of them African-Americans, 29 between 1975 and 1980. Because it would always be difficult for almost any person claiming relief from future police abuse to make such a showing the Lyons case has been an insuperable barrier to many suits seeking to challenge ongoing police practices. The damage caused by this ruling was best described by former Justice Thurgood Marshall in his Lyons dissent: Under the view expressed by the majority today, if the police adopt a "shoot to kill" policy or a policy of shooting one one out of every ten suspects, the federal courts will be powerless to enjoin its continuation.
But several roadblocks stand in the way of creating an effective and integrated workforce and education system that meets the needs of communities of color symptoms gallbladder buy synthroid 100 mcg lowest price. The lack of alignment of workforce development with the needs of employers in high-growth sectors and the economic development strategies being undertaken to medicine glossary synthroid 50mcg grow jobs in regions is an additional challenge medicine nelly buy cheap synthroid 100 mcg on-line. Congress must take action to medications gout generic synthroid 125 mcg on-line secure the funding needed to sustain the program and increase its maximum award to account for the increasing cost of a college education. Perkins Act, higher Education Act, and workforce investment Act should foster greater connections (linked learning) between the skills needed by industry and high school curriculum and career technical education. The federal government and states should ensure that evaluation systems, which inform compensation, professional development, and retention, measure the impact teachers make on student learning. Teacher performance should be measured in multiple, objective, and valid ways that at a minimum include measures of student achievement, classroom observations, and student feedback. States and districts should reform teachercompensation systems to pay teachers based on their levels of effectiveness, their roles and responsibilities, and service in high-demand subjects and hard-to-staff schools. The federal government and states in tandem should develop feedback mechanisms between teacher-preparation programs and pre-K-12 schools on student-learning outcomes. The federal government and states should also strengthen accountability for both traditional and alternative teacher-preparation programs 124 All-In Nation: An America that Works for All by establishing a common set of standards for teacher-education programs and enforcing an accountability system that factors in student learning, teaching-persistence rates, and feedback surveys from program graduates and employers. The federal government should fund the development and expansion of high-quality alternative certification programs. Congress should authorize competitive state grants for increasing high-quality alternate teacher-certification programs that are conditioned on the implementation of policies that ensure quality measured through student learning, teacher placement and persistence rates, and feedback surveys from program graduates and employers. Congress should require districts to demonstrate at least equal per-pupil distribution of state and local education funds between Title I and non-Title I schools, and require public reporting of the actual amount spent on teachers, other employees, and activities at each school, before federal Title I dollars are distributed. States should implement student-based budgeting systems, also known as weighted-student funding systems, that allocate dollars based on the extra educational needs of certain groups of students such as students from low-income families, English language learners, and students with disabilities. Improve school-funding fairness and equity Schools are grossly inequitably funded largely due to an outdated school governance structure that leaves schools at the mercy of local and state taxpayers. We must revisit school-funding mechanisms at every level of government-from the federal government down to the district level. Congress should simplify the Title I funding formula, from four formulas into one that is more transparent, more equitable, and less complex. The goal of this reform is to restore Title I to its original purpose: providing additional resources to districts serving concentrations of children from low-income families. Education for a Prosperous America 125 the federal government and states should support the continued development of community schools and other strategies that address placebased barriers to learning. Community schools are equipped to tackle some of the greatest challenges related to poverty, including inadequate health and social services, and foster family and community engagement. Such efforts must be: - Interdisciplinary-to address the interconnected problems in distressed neighborhoods - Coordinated-to align the requirements of federal programs so that local communities can more readily braid together different funding streams - Place based-to leverage investments by geographically targeting resources and drawing on the compounding effect of wellcoordinated action - Data and results driven-to facilitate program monitoring and evaluation, to guide action needed to make adjustments in policy or programming, and to learn what works and develop best practices - Flexible-to adapt to changing conditions on the ground58 the federal government and states should support fast-track programs, such as early-college high schools (which allow students to earn college credits as they obtain a high school diploma), to help students stay on the track to high school graduation as they are exposed to the rigors of college coursework and earn free college credit. Conclusion To build the human capital needed to regain our competitive edge in the global economy, we need to make smart investments in education and in workforce development. And in order to make sure that the youth populations who are growing the fastest-our communities of color-are not left behind, we must make sure that our reforms are targeted in ways that allow us to measure their impact on our most underserved populations. Brown and others, "investing in our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care" (washington: Center for American Progress, 2013), available at. Risley, Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children (Baltimore: Paul h. Reynolds, "Age-26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program" (2009), available at. Temple, "Cost-Effective Early Childhood development Programs from Preschool to Third Grade," Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 4 (2008): 109139. Employment service: seventy-five years of matching job seekers and Employers" (Kalamazoo, mi: w. Education for a Prosperous America 129 Quick view Education and Job Readiness for a Prosperous America uman capital is the key to succeeding in the global economy, but America is currently falling behind when it comes to educating our children and training our workers. This is due in large part to our failure to adequately educate black and latino students. As a result, black and latino students H lag behind whites in education attainment.
Schools also generally fail to medicine 5325 discount synthroid 75 mcg line accomodate the needs of pregnant teens in the same or similar manner as they treat students with medical disabilities symptoms for mono order synthroid 25 mcg on-line, by providing small items treatment lichen sclerosis buy synthroid 125mcg online, such as extra time to treatment 3 nail fungus buy 25mcg synthroid visa walk between classes or a larger desk. A number of studies have repeatedly documented that the effect of this sort of discrimination, and the failure of U. The participation opportunities, scholarships, equipment and other support are disproportionately 41 lower for female athletes in post-secondary athletics. While women constitute over half of all enrolled students in undergraduate institutions, women comprise only thirty percent of all college athletes. Female athletes receive less than one in 42 three of all athletic scholarship dollars. The allocation of non-scholarship support is even less equitable: some schools provide only one in five operating dollars to 43 female athletes and only seventeen percent of recruiting dollars. Some postsecondary schools also refuse to create varsity athletic teams for women in sports such as ice hockey, basketball and gymnastics, despite a demonstrated interest by women and disproportionate opportunities for men. As a result, many qualified young women are denied the opportunity to participate in competitive varsity athletics and/or receive athletic scholarships. Finally, women athletes are often relegated inferior equipment and supplies, receive less favorable competition and practice times, are allocated less favorable modes of travel and travel 44 accomodation, and their coaches are paid less than coaches of male teams. Health the United States has no law to protect women from discrimination in health care. First, according to a 1990 General Accounting Office study, women are frequently excluded from clinical drug trials. The underrepresentation and exclusion of women from such studies has resulted in negative effects of drug treatments for women, and gender-related effects of prescription drugs have been reported for a broad range of drugs and drug types, 46 including drugs as common as insulin or anti-depressants, such as lithium. Furthermore, the failure to grant women access to drug trials deprives women of access to potentially beneficial, albeit experimental, drug treatments which are available to men with similar medical conditions. To participate, such women must submit proof that they are using a "reliable" birth control method, which often means sterilization. Until this list was expanded, women who suffered from these conditions could not get the treatment and benefits, such as Medicaid and Social Inquiry Sought on Drug Tests That Exclude Women, the New York Times, Feb. Third, women of all ages have been either excluded or underrepresented in federally-funded studies, clinical trials and community demonstration projects examining diseases related to the heart. A 1991 study found that men are twice as 47 likely as women to receive newer, life-saving treatments for heart attacks. This discriminatory practice occurs even though diseases of the heart are the leading cause of death among women in the United States and account for twenty-eight 48 percent of all deaths of women. Women constitute approximately 48% of the 500,000 Americans who die of heart attacks each year. Despite these statistics, the majority of research and resources have been dedicated to studying conditions, such as coronary heart disease, in men. At present, gender-specific conditions or practices, such as the use of oral contraceptives, hysterectomies, menopause and the use of hormones following menopause, which may contribute to heart disease, remain unstudied. In addition, the effect of smoking and diet has been studied in men but little, if any, information is available on their impact on women. The few clinical trials and community demonstration projects which have included women are of little assistance, and the statistics flawed, since women were either not studied at each stage of the process or an adequate number of women were not included to reach accurate conclusions as to risk factors or determinants of 49 change. Recommendations Study Finds a Gender Gap in the Treatment of Heart Attacks, the New York Times, Nov. The study was conducted by researchers from the University of Washington and reported at a meeting of the American Heart Association. Federal courts have refused to equate language discrimination with national origin discrimination, which, like race and religion, warrants the highest level of judicial scrutiny; in the three-tier system of evaluating discrimination claims, language-based claims have been slotted into the lowest level, where the government must show only a "rational basis" for discriminatory government action. Meanwhile, attacks continue against minority language use in the schools, workplace and voting booth. Introduction Language minorities have always been and continue to be a substantial part of America, a nation largely of immigrants. According to the 1990 census, there are over 30 million Americans who speak a language other than English in 1 2 their homes. Language presents a substantial barrier to socio-economic mobility in a society that is geared almost exclusively to English speakers.
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