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Flowers pollinated by wind are usually small best cholesterol foods buy prazosin 1mg on-line, feathery cholesterol medication makes me sick 1mg prazosin with amex, and visually inconspicuous cholesterol in yard eggs buy generic prazosin 2 mg online. Flower structure is very diverse cholesterol medication depression purchase prazosin 1mg without a prescription, and carpels may be singular, multiple, or fused. The megaspores and the female gametophytes are produced and protected by the thick tissues of the carpel. A long, thin structure called a style leads from the sticky stigma, where pollen is deposited, to the ovary, enclosed in the carpel. The ovary houses one or more ovules, each of which will develop into a seed upon fertilization. The male reproductive organs, the stamens (collectively called the androecium), surround the central carpel. Stamens are composed of a thin stalk called a filament and a sac-like structure called the anther. The filament supports the anther, where the microspores are produced by meiosis and develop into pollen grains. Eggplants, zucchini, string beans, and bell peppers are all technically fruit because they contain seeds and are derived from the thick ovary tissue. Acorns are nuts, and winged maple whirligigs (whose botanical name is samara) are also fruit. Botanists classify fruit into more than two dozen different categories, only a few of which are actually fleshy and sweet. For instance, strawberries are derived from the receptacle and apples from the pericarp, or hypanthium. Some fruits are derived from separate ovaries in a single flower, such as the raspberry. Therefore, they generate microspores, which will generate pollen grains as the male gametophytes, and megaspores, which will form an ovule that contains female gametophytes. Each pollen grain contains two cells: one generative cell that will divide into two sperm and a second cell that will become the pollen tube cell. Anthers and carpels are structures that shelter the actual gametophytes: the pollen grain and embryo sac. The ovule, sheltered within the ovary of the carpel, contains the megasporangium protected by two layers of integuments and the ovary wall. Within each megasporangium, a megasporocyte undergoes meiosis, generating four megaspores-three small and one large. Only the large megaspore survives; it produces the female gametophyte, referred to as the embryo sac. Four of these cells migrate to each pole of the embryo sac; two come to the equator, and will eventually fuse to form a 2n polar nucleus; the three cells away from the egg form antipodals, and the two cells closest to the egg become the synergids. The mature embryo sac contains one egg cell, two synergids or "helper" cells, three antipodal cells, and two polar nuclei in a central cell. When a pollen grain reaches the stigma, a pollen tube extends from the grain, grows down the style, and enters through the micropyle: an opening in the integuments of the ovule. The other sperm fuses with the 2n polar nuclei, forming a triploid cell that will develop into the endosperm, which is tissue that serves as a food reserve. The zygote develops into an embryo with a radicle, or small root, and one (monocot) or two (dicot) leaf-like organs called cotyledons. This difference in the number of embryonic leaves is the basis for the two major this OpenStax book is available for free at cnx. Seed food reserves are stored outside the embryo, in the form of complex carbohydrates, lipids or proteins. The cotyledons serve as conduits to transmit the broken-down food reserves from their storage site inside the seed to the developing embryo. The seed consists of a toughened layer of integuments forming the coat, the endosperm with food reserves, and at the center, the well-protected embryo. Most flowers are monoecious or bisexual, which means that they carry both stamens and carpels; only a few species selfpollinate. Monoecious flowers are also known as "perfect" flowers because they contain both types of sex organs (Figure 26. Both anatomical and environmental barriers promote cross-pollination mediated by a physical agent (wind or water), or an animal, such as an insect or bird.
Such kinetic information cholesterol levels very high order 2 mg prazosin with mastercard, while limited test your cholesterol knowledge order 1 mg prazosin free shipping, can provide insight into the nature of cellular versus tissue effects as major components in cancer risks in the specific experimental model under study cholesterol test fasting coffee discount 2mg prazosin mastercard. Leukemia and Lymphoma the induction of leukemia and lymphoma has been examined in a number of murine systems cholesterol medication back pain cheap 2 mg prazosin visa, but the most extensive quantitative data on both dose-effects and time-dose relationships are for myeloid leukemia and thymic lymphoma. Interestingly, susceptibility in female mice of the same strains is markedly lower. Briefly, a number of dose-response models were seen to describe the data sets adequately. Data on incidence as a function of dose for both strains could be described by quadratic, linear-quadratic, and simple linear dose-responses with insufficient statistical power to exclude any of these three models on the basis of acute exposure data alone. Fractionation of the dose or low-dose-rate exposures resulted in a linear dose-response consistent with expectations of radiobiological theory in which the dose-response is linear quadratic for acute exposures and linear for low-dose-rate exposures, with the linear slope of the linear quadratic predicting the low-dose-rate and fractionation responses. These results are compatible with the apparent role of alterations in chromosome 2 in initial events for murine myeloid leukemogenesis and consistent with mechanistic predictions of dose and time-dose relationships described previously. Low-dose-rate exposures, although significantly less effective with respect to induction of thymic lymphoma than single acute exposures, still resulted in a complex dose-response with a clear suggestion of a large threshold (Ullrich and Storer 1979c). These results should not be unexpected since the development of thymic lymphoma in mice following irradiation is an extremely complex process. The target cells for induction of thymic lymphoma are thought to be in the bone marrow rather than the thymus, and the pathogenesis of the disease appears to be largely mediated through indirect mechanisms with cell killing playing a major role (Kaplan 1964, 1967; Haran-ghera 1976). For example, the expression of thymic lymphoma can be substantially reduced or eliminated by protection of bone marrow stem cells from radiation-induced cell killing. The complex nature of the pathogenesis of this disease and the lack of a comparable counterpart in humans argues against thymic lymphoma as an appropriate model for understanding dose-response and time-dose relationships in humans. In spite of the large numbers of animals used, analyses of the data with respect to dose-response models could not distinguish between linear and linear-quadratic models (Ullrich and Storer 1979b). However, when the data for low-dose-rate exposures were considered as well, they were most compatible with a linearquadratic model (Ullrich and Storer 1979c). Importantly, with respect to low-dose effects, these data support a linear response at low doses that is independent of exposure time. Such a response is consistent with predictions of the mechanistic model outlined earlier in this chapter. Although the number of animals used was smaller, a study examining radiation-induced lung and mammary adenocarcinomas in female Balb/c mice reached similar conclusions with respect to dose-response functions and low-dose risks (Ullrich and Storer 1979c; Ullrich 1983). This model was tested further in a series of experiments comparing the effectiveness of single acute exposures, acute fractionated exposures, and low-dose-rate exposures on the induction of lung and mammary tumors in the Balb/c mouse (Ullrich and others 1987). Importantly, in this study the hypothesis of time independence of effects at low doses was critically tested and found to hold. Specifically, similar effects were observed whether the same total dose was delivered as acute low-dose fractions or as low-dose-rate exposures. While the data for solid tumors described above are compatible with mechanistic models detailed earlier in this chapter, there are data sets that do not support a linear-quadratic dose-response model. Extensive data for mammary cancer induction in the Sprague-Dawley rat appear more consistent with a linear model over a wide range of doses and with linear, time-independent effects at low doses, low-dose fractions, and low dose rates (Shellabarger and others 1980). Although questions have been raised about the applicability of this model system to radiation-induced breast cancer in humans, much of the data from this rat model, from the mouse model in Balb/c mice, and from epidemiologic studies in exposed human populations appear to be consistent with respect to low-dose risk functions (Preston and others 2002b). In contrast to the data for leukemia and for pituitary, Harderian gland, lung, and mammary cancer described above, data from studies examining radiation-induced ovarian cancer in mice and bone and skin cancer in various animal species are more compatible with threshold dose-response models. In each instance it appears that an important role for cell killing in the process of neoplastic development and progression may explain these observations. Fry and his coworkers (1986) have shown that X-ray-initiated cells can be promoted to develop skin tumors by exposure to ultraviolet light. Based on such observations it is logical to speculate that the multiple high-dose fractions of radiation that are generally required to induce skin tumors in mouse skin are acting not only to initiate cells but also to induce tissue damage via cell killing, which in turn acts as a promoting stimulus to facilitate the progression of these initiated cells into skin tumors. Likewise in the rat, the high doses required to produce tumors are likely to produce both transformation of cells and sufficient cell killing to promote the transformed cells. It is also important to note studies by Jaffe and Bowden demonstrating that multiple low doses of radiation to the skin that did not produce tissue damage were not effective in promoting skin tumors initiated by chemical agents (Jaffe and Bowden 1986). These data support the view that the predominant role for low-dose radiation is tumorigenic initiation.
Classify Based on the map below and the map on the previous page cholesterol serum purchase 2mg prazosin mastercard, what is the main land biome in your state A tropical savanna is characterized by grasses and scattered trees in climates with less precipitation than other tropical areas cholesterol lowering diet in spanish proven prazosin 2 mg. Tropical seasonal forests occur in Africa xanthoma cholesterol spots buy prazosin 1mg free shipping, Asia cholesterol lowering foods plant sterols prazosin 2mg lowest price, Australia, and South and Central America. Tropical seasonal forests, also called tropical dry forests, have a wet season and a dry season. During the dry season, almost all of the trees drop their leaves to conserve water. Tropical rain forests are found in much of Central and South America, southern Asia, western Africa, and northeastern Australia. A tropical rain forest has warm temperatures and lots of rainfall throughout the year. Tall trees covered with mosses, ferns, and orchids form the canopy, or upper layer. Shorter trees, shrubs, and creeping plants make up the understory, or lower layer. Contrast How does rainfall differ between tropical rain forests and tropical seasonal forests Other Terrestrial Areas Mountains do not fit the definition of a biome because their climate and plant and animal life depend on elevation. Polar regions are also not true biomes because they are ice masses that lack land areas with soil. If you climb a mountain, you might notice that temperatures fall as you climb higher. Grasslands are at the bottom, pine trees grow farther up, and the cold elevations at the top support communities similar to the tundra. Draw Conclusions Name one adaptation of polar bears that helps them survive in their polar home. Whales and seals prey on penguins, fish, and shrimplike krill in the coastal waters of Antarctica. The Water on Earth Freshwater Ecosystems Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands are freshwater ecosystems. As illustrated in the figure below, the water flow begins at a source called a headwater. Rivers and streams also might start from underground springs or from melting snow. Currents of fast-moving rivers and streams prevent organic materials and sediments from building up. Organisms living in rivers and streams must be able to withstand the water current. Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems 31 What distinguishes zones in lakes and ponds Lakes and ponds are divided into three zones that are determined by depth and distance from the shoreline. Species in this zone includes algae, rooted and floating plants, snails, clams, insects, fishes, and amphibians. Plankton are free-floating photosynthetic autotrophs that live in freshwater or marine ecosystems. Many species of freshwater fish live in the limnetic zone because food is plentiful there. Less light reaches the profundal zone, which limits the species that are able to live there. Transitional Aquatic Ecosystems Transitional aquatic ecosystems are a combination of two or more different environments. Wetlands are areas of land that are saturated with water and support aquatic plants. The mixing of waters with different salt concentrations creates a unique ecosystem.
In the last row quest diagnostics cholesterol test cost buy prazosin 1 mg with mastercard, the readings for the rennin at a concentration of 1% contain an anomalous result is there cholesterol in shrimp generic prazosin 2mg otc. The second reading (shown in bold italics) is clearly out of line with the other two understanding cholesterol ratio buy cheap prazosin 2 mg, and looks much too close to cholesterol medication elderly order prazosin 2 mg the readings for the 0. If you are in a position to do so, the best thing to do about an anomalous result is to measure it again. An alternative way of recording this would be to record the time as infinite (symbol:). This can then be converted to a rate like all the other results by 1 calculating 1. Construct a results table, with full headings, in which you could record your results. Constructing a line graph You will generally want to display the results in a table as a graph. Once again, there are several important points to note about this graph, which you should always bear in mind whenever you construct and complete a graph. The independent variable goes on the x-axis (horizontal axis), and the dependent variable on the y-axis (vertical axis). Usually, you can simply copy the headings that you have used in the results table. The scale on each axis goes up in equal intervals, such as 1 s, 2 s, 5 s or 10 s intervals. The more spread out the scale is, the easier it is to see any trends and patterns in the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. There is not a single perfect place to put a best-fit line, but you should ensure that approximately the same number of points, roughly the same distances from the line, lie above and below it. An alternative way to draw the line would be to join each point to the next one with a ruled, straight line. Generally, you should use a best-fit line when told to do so, or when you can see a clear trend in which you have confidence. It is almost always incorrect to extend the line beyond the plotted points (extrapolate). A bar chart is drawn when you have a discontinuous variable on the x-axis and a continuous variable on the y-axis. A discontinuous variable is one where there is no continuous relationship between the items listed on the scale. The x-axis lists five species of tree; each type of tree is separate from the others, and there is no continuous relationship between them. A continuous variable is one where there is a smooth, numerical relationship between the values. The conclusion should relate to the initial question you were investigating or the hypothesis you were testing. You can do this from a table of results, but it is often best done using the graph that you have drawn. The graph is likely to show more clearly any trends and patterns in the relationship between your independent and dependent variables. As the concentration of rennin increased, the mean time to reach the end-point decreased, with the shortest mean time (12. This indicates that the rate of reaction increases as the concentration of rennin increases. The line on the graph is a curve with decreasing gradient, not a straight line, so the relationship between concentration of rennin and the rate of reaction is not proportional (linear). The curve is steepest for the lower concentrations of rennin, gradually flattening out for the higher concentrations.
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